Do African nations need a constitution for development?
|With the constitution on its way, the sun is setting on Eritrea's enemies|
Do African nations need a constitution for development?
Confucius, said “The strength of a nation is derived from the integrity of its homes.” Clearly there is wrong perception among some of citizens that every single Developed countries retained a constitution in their society. However, there are several developed countries who have paved the roadways for building their nations and also liberating their people from abject poverty, illiteracy, poor economy, and ravaged diseases without constituting constitutions. These developed countries what they do retained in their society is uncodified constitution. The uncodified constitution is a type of constitution where the fundamental rules of government take the form of customs, Basic Laws, usage, precedent and variety of statutes and legal instruments. Israel, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, San Marino, and Canada. Although Canada has Constitution Act, the important aspect of the constitution are uncodified. The preamble to the constitution of Canada declares that the constitution is to be similar in principle to that of the United Kingdom. The World Factbook brilliantly illustrate facts about developed and developing countries. For example, these two developed countries (below) have done remarkable work in setting forth the apparatus of foundations for eradicating poverty, eradicating illiteracy, eradicating rampant diseases, and building all the institution’s fabrics of their society.
|Total area: 9,984,670 sq. km||Total area: 20,770 sq. Km|
|Total population: 34,834, 841 (July 2014 est.)||Total population: 7,821,850 (July 2014 est.)|
|Dead Rate: 8.31 deaths/ 1,000 pop. (2014 est.)||Dead Rate: 5.54 Deaths/ 1,000 pop. (2014 est.)|
|Maternal Mortality rate: 12 deaths/ 100,000 live birth (est. 2010)||Maternal Mortality rate: 7 deaths/ 100,000 live birth (2010)|
|Life expectancy birth: 81.67 years||Life expectancy birth: 81.28 years|
|Physician density: 2.07 physicians/ 1,000 pop. (est. 2010)||Physician density: 3.11 physicians/1,000 pop. (2011)|
|Drinking water source: Improved||Drinking water source: Improved|
|Urban: 100 % of pop. Rural: 99% of pop.||Urban: 100% of pop. Rural: 100% of pop|
|HIV/AIDS-adult prevalence rate: 0.3% (2009 est.)||HIV/AIDS-adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)|
|HIV/AIDS-people living with HIV-AIDS: 68,000 (2009 est.)||HIV/AIDS- people living with HIV-AIDS: 7,500 (2009 est.)|
|LITARCY : total population: 99%||LITERACY-total population: 97.1 %|
|GPD -Purchasing Power Parity: $1.518 trillion (2013 est.)||GPD-Purchasing Power Parity: $273.2 billion (2013 est.)|
|GPD -Per Capita (PPP): $43,100 (2013 est.)||GDP-Per Capita (PPP): $36,200 (2013 est.)|
|Population below poverty line: 9.4%||Population below poverty line: 21%|
|Electricity –production: 618.9 billion kWh (2011 est.)||Electricity-production: 55.77 billion kWh (2011 est.)|
|Electricity –consumption: 499.9 billion kWh (2010 est.)||Electricity-consumption: 48.73 billion kWh (2010 est.)|
|Telephone -main line in use: 499.9 billion (2012)||Telephone-main line in use: 3.594 million (2012)|
|Telephone-mobile cellular: 26.263 million (2012)||Telephone-mobile cellular: 9.225 million (2012)|
|Internet hosts: 8.743 million (2012)||Internet hosts: 2.483 million (2012)|
|Internet users: 26.96 million (2009)||Internet users: 4.525 million (2009)|
|Airports: 1,467 (2013)||Airports: 47 (2013)|
|Heliports: 26||Heliports: 3 (2013)|
|Roadways: 1,042,300 km||Roadways: 975 km|
|Railways: 46,552 Km||Railways: 18,566 km|
The data clearly shows that both Canada and Israel have certainly eradicated illiteracy, elevated the socioeconomics of their citizens, availability of water in Urban and Rural area, superb health-care institutions, and superb infrastructures….
Both of Libya and Egypt, in the 1950s, were the first African nations to gain independence. Shortly, Ghana in 1957 was the first South of Sahara country to become independent. Subsequently, about 17 African nations in 1960s gained their independence. Today, a vast majority of African countries do have some kind forms of democratic institutions and constitution. Although a majority of African countries have certainly paved the roadway for democratic elections and constitution in which are seed-bed in their fabrics of society, unfortunately a vast majority of African countries have not yet liberated their nations from abject poverty, ravaged chronic diseases, high illiteracy, rampant corruptions, despicable nepotism, disputable tribalism, limited infrastructures and health-care institutions.
The Pan-African movement leaders, such as W.E.B. Dubois, Marcus Garvey, Henry Sylvester-William, Julius Nyrerer, Kwame Nkrumah, Robert M. Sobuke, Patrice Lumumba and etc., certainly fought for the liberation of African nations from colonization, inequality wealth, and ravaged diseases….These notably leaders did not shed their bloods for the broken-tools of democratic election and constitution before setting up the fundamental grass roots of institutions of fabrics inside their fragile society. For example, during the colonization era in Africa, virtually there were no infrastructures built in almost all countries except for few.
An American’s proverb, “Do not put the cart before the horse.” It means that the horse is the primary engine not the cart. Unfortunately, a majority African nations after post-independent have primarily focused on democratic institutions and constitution before forging on building their nation’s institution: infrastructure, health-care, primary-secondary educations, and universities. Apparently, building nation should have been the primary engine that it should be installed in the fabric’s society of African nations before anything else.
So, why are majority of African nations are muted in eradicating poverty, eradicating disease, eradicating illiteracy, and limited health-care institutions? The answer lies in the institutional formality of governing their intricate society. A majority institutions of African governments are infested with division of tribalism, no accountability, and individual conflict interests. The division of tribalism has been a fundamental problem for many African nations in their fabrics of society. For instances, South Sudan which is a new nation that recently received independence; unfortunately this nation is currently going through tribalism and individual interests of conflict in its society. Unfortunately, the South Sudan is going through transitional path of repeating history in which many African nations have had tribalism’s conflict in a post-
What are the solutions for the persistent chronic problems of African nations in which are lagging behind in a development of their society? Unfortunately, there are no quick fix solutions for the chronic problems in Africa nations. However, there are long-terms fundamental solutions that new African nation should consider them. First and foremost, the African nations should take holistic approaches in addressing the tribalism’s division which is the primary coercion to the component fabrics of the society.
For instances, in Somalia’s case is primarily the division of clans. Instead of installing variety of social instruments after post-independence that would tackle the cancerous tribalism and clan conflict in which it was propagated by the colonizers; the majority African nations hasty formed a fancy democratic institution and constitutions without real understanding the fundamental elements of colonialist syndrome which was embedded for centuries in the fabrics of African
Unfortunately, majority of African nations were not given a lengthy duration path of eradicating tribalism’s division and inserting institutional homogenization of fabrics in their society before anchoring the apparatus of democratic election and constitution. For example, the world has witnessed the horrific genocide of Rwandans in April 6, 1994. Rwanda received its independence from Belgium in July 1, 1962. The Rwandans were not give properly time to set-up transitional path of inserting the institutional homogenization of fabrics in their society before crafting hasty government in their fragile society. Unfortunately, history is repeating itself again with South Sudan people. Indeed, vicious cycle.
Confucius said, “It does not matter how slowly you go so long as you do not stop.” There is one nation within African nations which it has taken holistic approach in inserting the institutional homogenization of fabrics in its society. The country is Eritrea which is the Gateway of Africa. Ibrahim Sultan Ali and Woldeab Woldemariam were pioneer leaders before the birth of Pan-Africanists. These two noble leaders have fought with foreigners occupiers who had grand ambitious to plant heterogeneous apparatus of fabrics inside Eritrean’s society. The ancestral leaders of Eritrea had continuously fought invaders in the coast of Red Sea since reign of Aulis Empire. Therefore, history clearly depicted that for several centuries the invaders had continuously failed to ‘dived and conquer’ by introducing tribalism inside the fabrics of Eritrean society.
Apparently, the government and the people of Eritrea clearly have taken the legacy footprints of their ancestral leaders in preserving their homogenous society. Very noble.The incumbent government and people of Eritrea, despite of frequently unjust sanctions and with warmonger Ethiopian government neighbor, have taken prudent action in inserting fundamental grass-roots apparatus of building their nation in all sectors. Instead of fancy and futile democratic institutions, the Eritrean government and the people of Eritrea has chosen a transitional path of embarking on fundamental tools in building a homogenization of fabrics within its all nine tribes after independence. A brilliant approach.
For instances, the Sawa of Eritrea was established in early 1990’s after Eritrea received its independence. Then, the people of Eritrea and government knew right away that transitional path was the necessary approach because all different tribes must converged into one place: Sawa. The conventional Sawa is a habitat for all nine-tribes of Eritrean students and to finish their last year of secondary schools. At Sawa, the students have an opportunity to learn and to embrace other customs and religions beside theirs.
An American proverb, “You can show new tricks to young puppy but not to an old dog.” In Sawa, the young Eritrean students-who have the will and the ability-could learn to appreciate all the nine-tribes of Eritrea. According to many graduated Sawans’ testimonies, they are extremely delightful for the opportunity of being expose to the variety of rosy customs and cultures at Sawa. Aftermath of Rwandans’ genocide, the government and have developed social tolerances programs in their society. The tangible results of Sawa, which has been remarkable and phenomenal institution, has produced productive young Eritrean citizens who have embraced and assimilated to all nine-tribes’ customs and religion in society. Because of this brilliant results by Sawa, several African nations have indicated their interest in replicating the institution of Sawa in their fabrics’ society. Wonderful!
Winston Churchill, said “A love for tradition has never weakened a nation indeed it has strengthened nations in their hour of perils.” The government and the people of Eritrea have decided that the essence components of fabric’s society in building their nation is to follow their customs, and their traditional laws that have existed since reign of Adulis Empire. Furthermore, the government and the people of Eritrea certainly believe that they should crafted their own destinies in which are dictated by their own people not by aliens. A majority of Americans and Europeans’ tourists who arrived in Eritrea are astonished by the beauty, the serene environs, coexistence in harmony and love in nine-tribes, sophisticated roads, universal health-care, and universal educations. Unfortunately, many Americans and Europeans are bombard with ego-centric journalists who constantly seeking a quick fortunate in career by writing full-of- lies about Eritrea. Unfortunately, these immoral journalists, who have utterly disregard the moral ethics and conventional truths, have never visited Eritrea before embarking with their bashing words about the government and the people never met. Indeed, unbelievable!
An Eritrean proverb, “The camel keeps marching, while the dogs keep on barking.” For instance, Canadian reporter Matthew Mclean was fired from his post-job. Unfortunately, this opportunistic career reporter has never visited Eritrea but he found the liberty to bash on Eritrean’s fabric society as he has seen it with his own naked eyes. The Developed countries should take holistic approaches instead of ‘Carrots & Sticks’ with Eritrea. Eritrea and certain Africa nations who are on the verge of righteous path of eradicating poverty, eradicating illiteracy, and rendering universal health-care and educations, these countries could be a great alliances to the Developed countries and International communities. The International communities must take unprecedented approaches with the warmonger Ethiopian government who has embarked on disintegrating the components fabrics of society in Ethiopia. For thousands years, all tribes of Ethiopian have coexisted each other with harmony and love before the helm of TPLF. The Developed countries and International Communities have moral responsibility to stop the Ethiopian government for continuously embarking on campaign for creating unprecedented humanitarian crisis inside Ethiopia and as well in the region Horn of Africa. God Bless Eritrea & America & Africa!
Awet N Hafash
Eternal Glory to Our Martyrs
Do African nations need a constitution for development? Reviewed by Admin on 2:30 PM Rating: